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CONSTANTINE II Constantine the Gigantic son Roman Coin Glory of Navy i40444

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CONSTANTINE II Constantine the Gigantic son Roman Coin Glory of Navy i40444



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Item: i40444

authentic antique numismatic ancient coin for sale on ebay

 

 Appropriate Feeble

Coin of:

Constantine II
 ‘Junior’ –
Roman Emperor
:  337-340 A.D.

Bronze AE3 16mm (1.45 grams) Siscia mint: 337-340 A.D.
Reference: RIC 252 (VII, Siscia) var.
CONSTANTINVSMAXAVG – Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust staunch.
GLORIAEXERCITVS Exe: ΓSIS – Two troopers either facet of
<="" font="" color="#000000" face="Times New Roman">
labarum

topped with Chi-Rho.

Numismatic Expose: This two troopers standing throughout the labarum with the Christ
monogram comes
from leisurely in the reign of Constantine II. Additionally it’s a charming ingredient to
existing that he did no longer salvage
baptized except his dying day. Very rare coin.  

That you just would possibly very smartly be bidding on the accurate item pictured,

supplied with a Certificate of Authenticity and Lifetime Instruct of

Authenticity.

 

Labarum of Constantine I, displaying the “Chi-Rho” symbol above.

The labarum  used to be a
vexillum
(protection force usual) that displayed
the “Chi-Rho
symbol

, fashioned from the critical two
Greek letters
of the observe “Christ” 

Chi
and
Rho
. It used to be first extinct by the
Roman emperor

Constantine I
. Since the vexillum consisted of
a flag suspended from the crossbar of a sinful, it used to be ideal to
signify the
crucifixion
of
Christ
.

Later utilization has typically regarded the phrases “labarum” and “Chi-Rho” as
synonyms. Feeble sources, then yet yet again, design an unambiguous distinction between the
two.

Etymology

Beyond its derivation from Latin labarum, the etymology of the observe is
unclear. Some in discovering it from Latin /labāre/ ‘to totter, to waver’ (in the sense
of the “waving” of a flag in the flow) or laureum [vexillum] (“laurel
usual”). In step with the
Staunch Academia Española
, the linked
lábaro
is also derived from Latin labărum
nonetheless provides no extra derivation from within Latin, as does the Oxford English
Dictionary.[5]
An foundation as a mortgage into Latin from a Celtic language or
Basque
has also been postulated. There is a
frail Basque symbol called the
lauburu
; though the title is better attested from
the 19th century onwards the motif happens in engravings relationship as early because the
2nd century AD.

Imaginative and prescient of Constantine


A coin of Constantine (c.337) exhibiting an outline of his labarum
spearing a serpent.

On the evening of October 27, 312, with his navy making ready for the
Wrestle of the Milvian Bridge
, the emperor
Constantine I
claimed to have had a vision
which led him to factor in he used to be preventing underneath the protection of the
Christian God
.

Lactantius
states that, in the night before the
battle, Constantine used to be commanded in a dream to “delineate the pretty tag on
the shields of his troopers”. He obeyed and marked the shields with a tag
“denoting Christ”. Lactantius describes that tag as a “staurogram”, or a
Latin sinful
with its upper close rounded in a
P-adore vogue, as a replacement of the upper known
Chi-Rho
tag described by
Eusebius of Caesarea
. Thus, it had both the
abolish of a sinful and the monogram of Christ’s title from the fashioned letters “X”
and “P”, the critical letters of Christ’s title in Greek.

From Eusebius, two accounts of a battle continue to exist. The first, shorter one in
the
Ecclesiastical History
leaves absolute self perception that
God helped Constantine nonetheless would now not tag any vision. In his later Existence of
Constantine
, Eusebius offers a detailed account of a vision and stresses that
he had heard the story from the emperor himself. In step with this model,
Constantine with his navy used to be marching somewhere (Eusebius would now not specify the
proper attach of the event, nonetheless it completely clearly is no longer in the camp at Rome) when he
looked as a lot as the sun and saw a sinful of sunshine above it, and with it the Greek
phrases
Ἐν Τούτῳ Νίκα
. The traditionally employed
Latin translation of the Greek is
in hoc signo vinces
— actually “On this
tag, you would possibly conquer.” On the other hand, an instantaneous translation from the favorite Greek
textual inform of Eusebius into English offers the phrase “By this, conquer!”

Originally he used to be in doubt of the which implies of the apparition, nonetheless the following
night he had a dream by which Christ outlined to him that he can have to notify the
tag towards his enemies. Eusebius then continues to checklist the labarum, the
protection force usual extinct by Constantine in his later wars towards
Licinius
, exhibiting the Chi-Rho tag.

Those two accounts can hardly be reconciled with every other, though they’ve
been merged in current conception into Constantine seeing the Chi-Rho tag on the
evening before the battle. Both authors agree that the tag used to be no longer readily
understandable as denoting Christ, which corresponds with the reality that there would possibly be
no rush proof of the utilization of the letters chi and rho as a Christian tag
before Constantine. Its first look is on a Constantinian silver coin from
c. 317, which proves that Constantine did notify the tag at that time, though no longer
very prominently. He made huge notify of the Chi-Rho and the labarum finest
later in the battle with Licinius.

The vision has been interpreted in a solar context (e.g. as a
solar halo
phenomenon), which would were
reshaped to suit with the Christian beliefs of the later Constantine.

Yet every other clarification of the intersecting celestial symbol has been
evolved by George Latura, which claims that Plato’s seen god in Timaeus
is surely the intersection of the Milky Contrivance and the Zodiacal Gentle, a rare
apparition principal to pagan beliefs that Christian bishops reinvented as a
Christian symbol.


Eusebius’ description of the labarum

“A Description of the Fashioned of the Inferior, which the Romans now name the
Labarum.” “Now it used to be made in the following system. A lengthy spear, overlaid with
gold, fashioned the figure of the sinful by intention of a transverse bar laid over it.
On the tip of the total used to be mounted a wreath of gold and treasured stones; and
within this, the emblem of the Saviour’s title, two letters indicating the title
of Christ by intention of its initial characters, the letter P being intersected by
X in its centre: and these letters the emperor used to be in the behavior of carrying on
his helmet at a later length. From the sinful-bar of the spear used to be suspended a
cloth, a royal section, covered with a profuse embroidery of most radiant
treasured stones; and which, being also richly interlaced with gold, supplied an
indescribable level of beauty to the beholder. This banner used to be of a square
abolish, and the pretty workers, whose decrease section used to be of immense length, of the
pious emperor and his younger folks on its upper segment, below the trophy of the
sinful, and proper away above the embroidered banner.”

“The emperor repeatedly made notify of this tag of salvation as a safeguard
towards every negative and opposed energy, and commanded that others the same to it
can have to be carried on the head of all his armies.”


Iconographic occupation underneath Constantine


Coin of
Vetranio
, a soldier is conserving two
labara. Curiously they fluctuate from the labarum of Constantine in
having the Chi-Rho depicted on the fabric as a replacement of above it, and
in having their staves decorated with
phalerae
as were earlier Roman
protection force unit standards.


The emperor
Honorius
conserving a variant of the
labarum – the Latin phrase on the fabric means “In the title of Christ
[rendered by the Greek letters XPI] be ever victorious.”

Among a group of standards depicted on the
Arch of Constantine
, which used to be erected, largely
with fragments from older monuments, staunch three years after the battle, the
labarum would now not appear. A colossal opportunity for staunch the form of political
propaganda that the Arch in every other case used to be expressly built to most up-to-date used to be passed over.
That is that if Eusebius’ oath-confirmed account of Constantine’s unexpected,
vision-triggered, conversion would be depended on. Many historians have argued that in
the early years after the battle the emperor had no longer yet made up our minds to give rush
public make stronger to Christianity, whether or no longer from a lack of non-public faith or in consequence of
of fear of spiritual friction. The arch’s inscription does explain that the Emperor
had saved the
res publica
INSTINCTV DIVINITATIS
MENTIS MAGNITVDINE
(“by greatness of thoughts and by intuition [or impulse]
of divinity”). As with his predecessors, sun symbolism – interpreted as
representing
Sol Invictus
(the Unconquered Solar) or
Helios
,
Apollo
or
Mithras
– is inscribed on his coinage, nonetheless in
325 and thereafter the coinage ceases to be explicitly pagan, and Sol Invictus
disappears. In his
Historia Ecclesiae
Eusebius extra studies
that, after his victorious entry into Rome, Constantine had a statue of himself
erected, “conserving the tag of the Savior [the cross] in his staunch hand.” There
are no other studies to substantiate this kind of monument.

Whether or no longer Constantine used to be the critical
Christian
emperor supporting a silent
transition to Christianity throughout his rule, or an undecided pagan believer except
center age, strongly influenced in his political-spiritual choices by his
Christian mother
St. Helena
, is quiet in dispute amongst
historians.

As for the labarum itself, there would possibly be miniature proof for its notify before 317.In
the direction of Constantine’s 2nd war towards Licinius in 324, the latter
developed a superstitious fright of Constantine’s usual. All the intention by intention of the assault of
Constantine’s troops on the
Wrestle of Adrianople
the guard of the labarum
usual were directed to switch it to any segment of the discipline the attach his troopers
looked as if it would possibly well be faltering. The appears to be of this talismanic object regarded to
embolden Constantine’s troops and fear those of Licinius.On the very finest battle
of the war, the
Wrestle of Chrysopolis
, Licinius, though
prominently displaying the photographs of Rome’s pagan pantheon on his beget battle
line, forbade his troops from actively attacking the labarum, or even taking a detect at
it straight.[16]

Constantine felt that both Licinius and
Arius
were brokers of Satan, and linked them
with the serpent described in the
E-book of Revelation
(12:9).
Constantine represented Licinius as a snake on his money.

Eusebius mentioned that to boot to the singular labarum of Constantine,
other the same standards (labara) were issued to the Roman navy. This is
confirmed by the two labara depicted being held by a soldier on a coin of
Vetranio
(illustrated) relationship from 350.

Later utilization


Smartly-liked ecclesiastical labara (Southern Germany).


The emperor
Constantine Monomachos
(centre
panel of a Byzantine enamelled crown) conserving a tiny labarum

Flavius Claudius Constantinus, known in English as

Constantine II, (316-340) used to be

Roman Emperor

from 337

Campidoglio, Roma - Costantino II cesare dettaglio.jpgto

340. The eldest son of

Constantine the Gigantic

and

Fausta
, he used to be

born at Arles
,

and used to be raised as a Christian.

On

March 1
,

317,

Constantine used to be made

Caesar

, and on the age of seven in 323, took segment in his father’s marketing campaign

towards the

Sarmatians

. On the age of ten he grew to become commander of

Gaul, after the

loss of life of his half of-brother

Crispus
. An

inscription relationship to 330 records the title of Alamannicus, so it’s a ways

probable that his generals acquired a victory over the

Alamanni
.

His protection force occupation continued when Constantine I elected his son discipline commander

throughout the 332 marketing campaign towards the

Goths
.

Following the loss of life of his father in 337, Constantine II

grew to become emperor jointly with his brothers

Constantius II

and

Constans
.

After the division of the empire, made by the three brothers in September of the

identical year in Pannonia, he dominated over

Gaul,

Britannia

and

Hispania
.

He used to be excited by the battle between the various

Christian streams. The Western section of the empire leaned towards

Catholicism

and towards

Arianism
,

and Constantine freed

Athanasius

and allowed him to device support to

Alexandria
.

This motion also build some burden on Constantius II, who used to be a supporter of

Arianism.

Originally, he used to be the guardian of his youthful brother Constans, whose section

used to be

Italia

,

Africa

and

Illyricum

. As Constans came of age, Constantine would no longer relinquish the

guardianship and in 340 he marched towards Constans in Italy, nonetheless used to be defeated

at Aquileia

and he used to be killed in an ambush in

Cervignano del Friuli

. Constans came to manipulate his deceased brother’s

realm.

 

Division of the Roman Empire amongst the Caesars appointed by
Constantine I
: from left to staunch,
the territories of Constantine II,
Constans I
,
Dalmatius
and
Constantius II
. After the loss of life of
Constantine I (Could presumably well fair 337), this used to be the formal division of the Empire,
except Dalmatius used to be killed and his territory divided between
Constans and Constantius.

 


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