Gallienus son of Valerian I  Used  Roman Rare Coin Zeus Jupiter Cult   i29978

Gallienus son of Valerian I Used Roman Rare Coin Zeus Jupiter Cult i29978

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Gallienus son of Valerian I Used Roman Rare Coin Zeus Jupiter Cult i29978



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Item: i29978

 

Legit Used

Coin of:

Gallienus – Roman Emperor: 253-268 A.D. – Joint Rule with
Valerian I  253-260 A.D. –

Bronze Antoninianus 20mm (2.12 grams)  Rome mint: (sole reign) 260-268 A.D.
Reference: RIC 210 N devoted; Cohen 361. Goebl 0626a; RIC 210 var (fieldmark
set up). 
GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head devoted
 IOVI CONSERVAT, Jupiter standing left keeping thunderbolt & sceptre. N in
devoted topic.

It’s most likely you’ll presumably presumably even be bidding on the true item pictured,

equipped with a Certificate of Authenticity and Lifetime Yelp of

Authenticity.  

Gallienus (Latin:
Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus Augustus;
c. 218 – 268) modified into
Roman Emperor
with his father
Valerian
from 253 to 260 and alone from 260 to
268. He dominated for the length of the
Crisis of the Third Century
that nearly prompted
the collapse of the empire. Whereas he won a need of militia victories, he modified into
unable to forestall the secession of necessary provinces.Gallienus bust.jpg
Lifestyles

Upward push to energy

The actual birth date of Gallienus is unknown. The Greek chronicler
John Malalas
and the Epitome de Caesaribus
file that he modified into about 50 years old at the time of his demise, which manner he modified into
born around 218. He modified into the son of emperor
Valerian
and
Mariniana
, who may additionally were of senatorial
shocking, presumably the daughter of
Egnatius Victor Marinianus
, and his brother modified into
Valerianus Minor
. Inscriptions on coins connect
him with Falerii
in
Etruria
, that can also were his birthplace; it
has yielded many inscriptions referring to to his mom’s family, the Egnatii.[3]
Gallienus married
Cornelia Salonina
about ten years old to his
accession to the throne. She modified into the mom of three princes:
Valerian II
, who died in 258;
Saloninus
, who modified into named co-emperor but modified into
murdered in 260 by the navy of total Postumus; and
Marinianus
, who modified into killed in 268, rapidly
after his father modified into assassinated.

When
Valerian
modified into proclaimed Emperor on 22 October
253, he asked the
Senate
to ratify the elevation of Gallienus to
Caesar and
Augustus
. He modified into also designated
Consul Ordinarius
for 254. As
Marcus Aurelius
and his adopted brother
Lucius Verus
had performed a century earlier,
Gallienus and his father divided the Empire. Valerian left for the East to stem
the Persian possibility, and Gallienus remained in Italy to repel the Germanic tribes
on the Rhine
and
Danube
.
Division of the empire
had change into the biggest due
to its sheer dimension and the a staunch need of threats it confronted, and it facilitated
negotiations with enemies who demanded to communicate without extend with the emperor.

Early
reign and the get up of Ingenuus

Gallienus spent most of his time in the provinces of the Rhine space (Germania
Sinful
,
Germania Superior
,
Raetia
, and
Noricum
), even though he nearly absolutely visited
the Danube
space and
Illyricum
for the length of 253 to 258. Per
Eutropius and Aurelius Victor, he modified into critically energetic and qualified in
combating invaders from attacking the German provinces and Gaul, no topic the
weakness prompted by Valerian’s march on Italy in opposition to
Aemilianus
in 253. Per numismatic
evidence, he appears to be like to non-public won many victories there, and a victory in
Roman Dacia
may additionally additionally be dated to that length.
Even the adverse Latin tradition attributes success to him right this moment.

In 255 or 257, Gallienus modified into made Consul once more, suggesting that he swiftly
visited Rome on these cases, even though no file survives. At some level of his Danube
sojourn (Drinkwater suggests in 255 or 256), he proclaimed his elder son
Valerian II
Caesar and thus authentic inheritor to
himself and Valerian I; the boy potentially joined Gallienus on campaign at that
time, and when Gallienus moved west to the Rhine provinces in 257, he remained
in the abet of on the Danube as the personification of Imperial authority.

Sometime between 258 and 260 (the true date is unclear), while Valerian modified into
distracted with the continuing invasion of Shapur in the East, and Gallienus modified into
preoccupied with his concerns in the West,
Ingenuus
, governor of at the very least one in all the
Pannonian provinces, took advantage and declared himself emperor. Valerian II
had it appears to be like died on the Danube, presumably in 258. Ingenuus may additionally were
guilty for that calamity. Alternatively, the defeat and map shut of Valerian
at the
battle of Edessa
may additionally were the set up off for
the subsequent revolts of Ingenuus,
Regalianus
, and
Postumus
.
In spite of all the pieces, Gallienus reacted with colossal hurry. He left his son
Saloninus
as Caesar at
Cologne
, beneath the supervision of Albanus (or
Silvanus) and the militia leadership of Postumus. He then swiftly crossed the
Balkans
, taking with him the contemporary cavalry corps
(comitatus) beneath the uncover of
Aureolus
and defeated Ingenuus at
Mursa
or
Sirmium
.The victory should always level-headed be attributed primarily
to the cavalry and its pleasurable commander. Ingenuus modified into killed by his non-public
guards or committed suicide by drowning himself after the autumn of his capital,
Sirmium.

Invasion of the
Alamanni

A predominant invasion by the
Alemanni
and assorted Germanic tribes happened
between 258 and 260 (it’s exhausting to repair the true date of these
events),potentially ensuing from the vacuum left by the withdrawal of troops supporting
Gallienus in the campaign in opposition to Ingenuus.
Franks
broke thru the lower Rhine, invading

Gaul
, some reaching as some distance as southern Spain, sacking Tarraco (contemporary
Tarragona
).The Alamanni invaded, potentially
thru
Agri Decumates
(an space between the upper Rhine
and the upper Danube), likely followed by the
Juthungi
. After devastating Germania Superior
and Raetia (parts of southern
France
and
Switzerland
), they entered Italy, the first
invasion of the Italian peninsula, with the exception of its most some distance away northern regions,
since Hannibal
500 years old to. When invaders
reached the outskirts of Rome, they were repelled by an improvised navy
assembled by the Senate, consisting of local troops (potentially prǣtorian guards)
and the strongest of the civilian population.On their retreat thru northern
Italy, they were intercepted and defeated in the
battle of Mediolanum
(shut to most modern day
Milan
) by Gallienus’ navy, which had evolved
from Gaul, or from the Balkans after going thru the Franks.The battle of
Mediolanum modified into decisive, and the Alamanni did not grief the empire for the subsequent
ten years. The Juthungi managed to sinister the Alps with their valuables and
captives from Italy. An historian in the 19th century instructed that the
initiative of the Senate gave upward thrust to jealousy and suspicion by Gallienus, thus
contributing to his exclusion of senators from militia instructions.

The get up of
Regalianus

Around the similar time,
Regalianus
, a militia commander of
Illyricum
, modified into proclaimed Emperor. The explanations
for this are unclear, and the Historia Augusta (nearly the sole resource
for these events) doesn’t provide a reputable narrative. It’s some distance most likely the seizure
may even be attributed to the discontent of the civilian and militia provincials,
who felt the protection of the province modified into being neglected.

Regalianus held energy for some six months and issued coins bearing his image.
After some success in opposition to the
Sarmatians
, his get up modified into set up down by the
invasion of Roxolani
into
Pannonia
, and Regalianus himself modified into killed
when the invaders took the city of
Sirmium
. There may be an provide that Gallienus
invited Roxolani to assault Regalianus, but assorted historians brush aside the
accusation.It’s also instructed that the invasion modified into sooner or later checked by Gallienus shut to
Verona
and that he directed the restoration of
the province, potentially in particular person.


Blueprint shut of Valerian, get up of Macrianus

In the East, Valerian modified into confronted with extreme troubles. A band of
Scythians
set up a naval raid in opposition to
Pontus
, in the northern section of contemporary Turkey.
After ravaging the province, they moved south into
Cappadocia
. Valerian led troops to intercept
them but failed, presumably ensuing from a pandemic that gravely weakened his navy, as
smartly as the contemporary invasion of northern
Mesopotamia
by
Shapur I
, ruler of the
Sassanid Empire
.

In 259 or 260, the Roman navy modified into defeated in the
War of Edessa
, and Valerian modified into taken
prisoner. Shapur’s navy raided
Cilicia
and
Cappadocia
(in most modern day
Turkey
), sacking, as Shapur’s inscriptions
recount, 36 cities. It took a rally by an officer
Callistus
(Balista), a fiscal authentic named
Fulvius Macrianus
, the stays of the Jap
Roman legions, and
Odenathus
and his
Palmyrene
horsemen to flip the tide in opposition to
Shapur. The Persians were pushed abet, but Macrianus proclaimed his two sons
Quietus
and
Macrianus
(every so customarily misspelled Macrinus) as
emperors. Money struck for them in predominant cities of the East existing
acknowledgement of the usurpation. The 2 Macriani left Quietus, Ballista, and,
presumably, Odenathus to address the Persians while they invaded Europe with
an navy of 30,000 males, primarily based on the Historia Augusta. At the starting up they
met no opposition. The Pannonian legions joined the invaders, being resentful of
the absence of Gallienus. He sent his qualified commander Aureolus in opposition to the
rebels, nonetheless, and the decisive battle modified into fought in the spring or early
summer season of 261, presumably in Illyricum, even though
Zonaras
locates it in Pannonia. In spite of all the pieces,
the navy of the usurpers surrendered, and their two leaders were killed.

In the aftermath of the battle, the get up of Postumus had already
started, so Gallienus had no time to address the the rest of the usurpers, namely
Balista and Quietus. He came to an settlement with Odenathus, who had upright
returned from his victorious Persian expedition. Odenathus obtained the title of
dux Romanorum and besieged the usurpers, who were primarily based at
Emesa
. In the smash, the of us of Emesa killed
Quietus, and Odenathus arrested and accomplished Balista about November 261.

The get up of Postumus

After the defeat at Edessa, Gallienus lost exhaust a watch on over the provinces of
Britain, Spain, parts of Germania, and a sizable section of Gaul when one other
total, Postumus
, declared his non-public realm (customarily identified
at the present time as the
Gallic Empire
). The get up partly coincided
with that of
Macrianus
in the East. Gallienus had installed
his son Saloninus and his guardian,
Silvanus
, in Cologne in 258. Postumus, a
total in uncover of troops on the banks of the Rhine, defeated some raiders
and took possession of their spoils. As a substitute of returning it to the authentic
house owners, he most smartly-appreciated to distribute it amongst his squaddies. When news of this
reached Silvanus, he demanded the spoils be sent to him. Postumus made a expose of
submission, but his squaddies mutinied and proclaimed him Emperor. Under his
uncover, they besieged Cologne, and after some weeks the defenders of the city
opened the gates and handed Saloninus and Silvanus to Postumus, who had them
killed. The dating of these events isn’t pleasurable, but they it appears to be like happened
upright old to the discontinuance of 260. Postumus claimed the consulship for himself and one
of his mates, Honoratianus, but primarily based on D.S. Potter, he by no manner tried to
united states of the usa Gallienus or invade Italy.

Upon receiving news of the execute of his son, Gallienus started gathering
forces to face Postumus. The invasion of the Macriani compelled him to dispatch
Aureolus with a sizable force to oppose them, nonetheless, leaving him with
insufficient troops to battle Postumus. After some preliminary defeats, the navy of
Aureolus, having defeated the Macriani, rejoined him, and Postumus modified into expelled.
Aureolus modified into entrusted with the pursuit and deliberately allowed Postumus to
speed and secure contemporary forces. Gallienus returned in 263 or 265 and surrounded
Postumus in an unnamed Gallic city. At some level of the siege, Gallenus modified into severely
wounded by an arrow and had to leave the topic. The standstill persevered till
the demise of Gallienus, and the
Gallic Empire
remained just till 274.

The get up of
Aemilianus

In 262, the mint in
Alexandria
started to once more predicament coins for
Gallienus, demonstrating that Egypt had returned to his exhaust a watch on after
suppressing the get up of the Macriani. In spring of 262, the city modified into wrenched
by civil unrest on narrative of a recent get up. The revolt this time modified into the prefect
of Egypt,
Lucius Mussius Aemilianus
, who had already
given help to the get up of the Macriani. The correspondence of bishop
Dionysius of Alexandria
offers a colourful
commentary on the sombre background of invasion, civil battle, plague, and famine
that characterized this age.

Vivid he may additionally not give you the cash for to lose exhaust a watch on of the a must non-public Egyptian granaries,
Gallienus sent his total Theodotus in opposition to Aemilianus, potentially by a naval
expedition. The decisive battle potentially took space shut to Thebes, and the discontinuance end result
modified into a clear defeat of Aemilianus. In the aftermath, Gallienus became Consul
three extra times in 262, 264, and 266.


Herulian invasions, get up of Aureolus, conspiracy and demise

In the years 267–269, Goths and assorted barbarians invaded the empire in colossal
numbers. Sources are extremely perplexed on the dating of these invasions, the
participants, and their targets. In trend historians are not even in a collection up to discern
with certainty whether there were two or extra of these invasions or a single
prolonged one. It appears to be like, at the muse, a necessary naval expedition modified into led by the
Heruli
starting from north of the
Unlit Sea
and leading in the ravaging of many
cities of Greece (amongst them,
Athens
and
Sparta
). Then one other, powerful extra a staunch need of navy
of invaders started a 2nd naval invasion of the empire. The Romans defeated
the barbarians on sea first. Gallienus’ navy then won a battle in
Thrace
, and the Emperor pursued the invaders.
Per some historians, he modified into the chief of the navy who won the colossal
War of Naissus
, while the majority believes
that the victory should always level-headed be attributed to his successor,
Claudius II
.

In 268, at some time old to or soon after the battle of Naissus, the
authority of Gallienus modified into challenged by
Aureolus
, commander of the cavalry stationed in
Mediolanum
(Milan),
who modified into alleged to protect an leer on
Postumus
. As a substitute, he acted as deputy to
Postumus till the very final days of his get up, when he appears to be like to non-public claimed
the throne for himself. The decisive battle took space at what is now
Pontirolo Nuovo
shut to Milan; Aureolus modified into
clearly defeated and pushed abet to Milan. Gallienus laid siege to the city but
modified into murdered for the length of the siege. There are differing accounts of the execute, but
the sources agree that nearly all of Gallienus’ officials wished him tiring.
Per the
Historia Augusta
, an unreliable source compiled
prolonged after the events it describes, a conspiracy modified into led by the commander of the
guard
Aurelius Heraclianus
and Marcianus.

Cecropius, commander of the Dalmatians, spread the observe that the forces of
Aureolus were leaving the city, and Gallienus left his tent with out his
bodyguard, handiest to be struck down by Cecropius.One model has Claudius selected
as Emperor by the conspirators, one other chosen by Gallienus on his demise mattress;
the Historia Augusta modified into concerned to substantiate the descent of the
Constantinian dynasty
from Claudius, and this
may additionally mask its accounts, which form not involve Claudius in the execute. The loads of
sources (Zosimus
i.40 and
Zonaras
xii.25) file that the conspiracy modified into
organized by Heraclianus, Claudius, and
Aurelian
.

Per Aurelius Victor and Zonaras, on listening to the news that Gallienus
modified into tiring, the Senate in Rome ordered the execution of his family (along side his
brother Valerianus and son Marinianus) and their supporters, upright old to
receiving a message from Claudius to spare their lives and deify his
predecessor.


 

Arch of Gallienus
in Rome, 262 –
dedicated to, in want to constructed by, Gallienus.

Legacy

Gallienus modified into not handled favorably by extinct historians, partly ensuing from the
secession of Gaul and
Palmyra
and his lack of skill to make a selection them abet.
Per contemporary student Pat Southern, some historians now see him in a extra
obvious light.Gallienus produced some functional reforms. He contributed to
militia history as the first to commission primarily
cavalry
objects, the
Comitatenses
, that will be dispatched anyplace
in the Empire in transient hiss. This reform arguably created a precedent for the
future emperors
Diocletian
and
Constantine I
.

The biographer
Aurelius Victor
reports that Gallienus forbade
senators
from turning into militia commanders.
This protection undermined senatorial energy, as extra legitimate
equestrian
commanders rose to prominence. In
Southern’s focal level on, these reforms and the decline in senatorial influence not handiest
helped Aurelian to salvage the Empire, but they also impact Gallienus one in all the
emperors most guilty for the creation of the
Dominate
, along with
Septimius Severus
, Diocletian, and Constantine
I.

By portraying himself with the attributes of the gods on his coinage,
Gallienus started the final separation of the Emperor from his topics.A late
bust of Gallienus (see above) depicts him with a largely blank face, watching
heavenward, as viewed on the celebrated stone head of
Constantine I
. One in every of the final rulers of Rome
to be theoretically known as “Princeps”, or First Citizen, Gallienus’ shrewd
self-promotion assisted in paving the trend for of us that can presumably be addressed with
the phrases “Dominus et Deus” (Lord and God).

In the
extinct Greek

faith
, Zeus


zews




zooss

;
Used Greek
: Ζεύς;
In trend
Greek

: Δίας, Dias) modified into the “Father of Gods and males” (πατὴρ
ἀνδρῶν τε θεῶν τε
)
who dominated the Olympians of
Mount
Olympus

as a father dominated the family. He modified into the
god of sky

and
remark
in
Greek mythology
. His
Roman
counterpart is
Jupiter
and
Etruscan
counterpart is
Tinia
.

Zeus modified into the youngster of
Cronus
and
Rhea
, and the youngest of his siblings. In most
traditions he modified into married to

Hera
, even though, at the oracle of
Dodona
, his consort modified into
Dione
: primarily based on the
Iliad
, he is the daddy of
Aphrodite
by Dione.
He is identified for his erotic escapades. These resulted in many godly and valorous
offspring, along side
Athena
,
Apollo
and
Artemis
,
Hermes
,
Persephone
(by
Demeter
),
Dionysus
,
Perseus
,
Heracles
,
Helen of Troy
,
Minos
, and the

Muses
(by
Mnemosyne
); by Hera, he is regularly acknowledged to non-public
fathered Ares
,
Hebe
and
Hephaestus
.

As
Walter Burkert
parts out in his book, Greek
Faith
, “Even the gods who’re not his pure younger of us address him as
Father, and your complete gods upward thrust in his presence.”
For the Greeks, he modified into the
King of the Gods
, who oversaw the universe. As
Pausanias
observed, “That Zeus is king in
heaven is a announcing total to all males”.
In Hesiod’s Theogony
Zeus assigns the many gods
their roles. In the
Homeric Hymns
he is known as the
chieftain of the gods.

His symbols are the
thunderbolt
,
eagle
,
bull
, and

oak
.
As smartly as to his Indo-European inheritance, the classical “cloud-gatherer”
also derives hurry iconographic traits from the cultures of the
Used Shut to East
, such as the
scepter
. Zeus is frequently depicted by Greek
artists in a single in all two poses: standing, striding forward, with a thunderbolt
leveled in his raised devoted hand, or seated in majesty.

In

Roman mythology

,

Jupiter
or

Jove modified into the

king of the gods

, and the god of

sky and

remark
. He

is

the equivalent of Zeus

in the

Greek pantheon

. He modified into known as Iuppiter (or Diespiter)

Optimus Maximus (“Father God the Easiest and Supreme”). Because the patron deity of

extinct

Rome
, he dominated over criminal guidelines and social hiss. He modified into the executive god of the

Capitoline Triad

, with sister/necessary other

Juno

. Jupiter is also the daddy of the god

Mars

with Juno. Attributable to this truth, Jupiter is the grandfather of

Romulus and Remus

, the legendary founders of Rome. Jupiter modified into honored in

extinct Roman faith

, and is level-headed honored in

Roman Neopaganism

. He is a son of

Saturn

, along with brothers

Neptune

and

Pluto

.

He is also the brother/husband of

Ceres

(daughter of Saturn and mom of

Proserpina
),

brother of Veritas

(daughter of Saturn), and father of

Mercury

.



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