Licinius I – Roman Emperor 308-324 A.D.
Billon Follis (BI Diminished Nummus) 25mm (5.66 grams) Alexandria mint, struck circa 308-310 A.D.
Reference: S. 15314
Certification: NGC Ancients Ch VF 4936284-012
IMP C VAL LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate head comely.
VIRTVS EXERCITVS, Virtus (or Mars) in military attire advancing comely; retaining trophy and shield over one shoulder and spear with the assorted; Okay in left field; Γ over P in comely field; ALE in exergue below.
VERY RARE COIN, enjoy no longer realized anything else same in various on-line databases.
You might per chance very smartly be bidding on the staunch merchandise pictured, provided with a Certificate of Authenticity and Lifetime Guarantee of Authenticity.
In Roman mythology, Virtus was the deity of bravery and military strength, the personification of the Roman advantage of virtus. The Greek same deity was Arete. He/she was identified with the Roman god Honos (personification of honour) and was most steadily honoured at the side of him, much like in the Temple of Virtus and Honos at the Porta Capena in Rome itself.
Virtus was a explicit advantage in Worn Rome. It carries connotations of valor, manliness, excellence, courage, personality, and fee, perceived as masculine strengths (from Latin vir, “man”). It was thus an steadily talked about advantage of Roman emperors, and was personified as a deity-Virtus.
Licinius I – Roman Emperor 308-324 A.D.
| Husband of Constantia | Father of Licinius II | Son-in-legislation of Theodora and (posthumously) Constantius I | Uncle of Delmatius, Hanniballianus, Constantius Gallus, Julian II and Nepotian | Half-brother-in-legislation of Constantine the Sizable |
Licinius I (Latin: Gaius Valerius Licinianus Licinius Augustus; c. 263-325) was a Roman emperor from 308 to 324. For many of his reign he was the colleague and rival of Constantine I, with whom he co-authored the Edict of Milan that granted noble toleration to Christians in the Roman Empire. He was in the ruin defeated at the Strive in opposition to of Chrysopolis, sooner than being finished on the orders of Constantine I.
Sculptural portraits of Licinius (left) and his rival Constantine I (comely).
Born to a Dacian peasant household in Moesia Fine, Licinius accompanied his end childhood friend, the future emperor Galerius, on the Persian expedition in 298. He was depended on ample by Galerius that in 307 he was despatched as an envoy to Maxentius in Italy to strive to attain some agreement about the latter’s illegitimate political plan. Galerius then depended on the jap provinces to Licinius when he went to contend with Maxentius individually after the loss of life of Flavius Valerius Severus.
Upon his return to the east Galerius elevated Licinius to the sinful of Augustus in the West on November 11, 308. He got as his immediate give an explanation for the provinces of Illyricum, Thrace and Pannonia. In 310 he took give an explanation for of the warfare in opposition to the Sarmatians, inflicting a severe defeat on them and emerging victorious. On the loss of life of Galerius in May well simply 311, Licinius entered into an agreement with Maximinus II (Daia) to part the jap provinces between them. By this point, no longer handiest was Licinius the noble Augustus of the west but he additionally possessed fragment of the jap provinces as smartly, as the Hellespont and the Bosporus modified into the dividing line, with Licinius taking the European provinces and Maximinus taking the Asian.
An alliance between Maximinus and Maxentius compelled the 2 final emperors to enter proper into a proper agreement with every assorted. So in March 313 Licinius married Flavia Julia Constantia, half-sister of Constantine I, at Mediolanum (now Milan); that they had a son, Licinius the Youthful, in 315. Their marriage was the occasion for the collectively-issued “Edict of Milan” that reissued Galerius’ outdated edict allowing Christianity to be professed in the Empire, with further dispositions that restored confiscated properties to Christian congregations and exempted Christian clergy from municipal civic responsibilities. The redaction of the edict as reproduced by Lactantius – who follows the textual remark affixed by Licinius in Nicomedia on June 14 313, after Maximinus’ defeat – makes use of a neutral language, expressing a will to propitiate “any Divinity whatsoever in the seat of the heavens”.
Daia in the intervening time made up our minds to attack Licinius. Leaving Syria with 70,000 men, he reached Bithyniaa, although harsh climate he encountered alongside the style had gravely weakened his navy. In April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which was held by Licinius’ troops. Undeterred, he took the metropolis after an eleven-day siege. He moved to Heraclea, which he captured after a brief siege, sooner than transferring his forces to the most critical posting region. With a much smaller physique of fellows, per chance round 30,000, Licinius arrived at Adrianople whereas Daia was level-headed besieging Heraclea. Sooner than the decisive engagement, Licinius allegedly had a vision wherein an angel recited him a generic prayer that would be adopted by all cults and which Licinius then repeated to his troopers. On 30 April 313, the 2 armies clashed at the Strive in opposition to of Tzirallum, and in the ensuing battle Daia’s forces were crushed. Ridding himself of the imperial crimson and dressing admire a slave, Daia fled to Nicomedia. Believing he level-headed had a broad gamble to return out victorious, Daia tried to prevent the come of Licinius at the Cilician Gates by setting up fortifications there. Sadly for Daia, Licinius’ navy succeeded in breaking thru, forcing Daia to retreat to Tarsus where Licinius persevered to press him on land and sea. The warfare between them handiest ended with Daia’s loss of life in August 313.
Provided that Constantine had already crushed his rival Maxentius in 312, the 2 men made up our minds to divide the Roman world between them. As a results of this settlement, Licinius modified into sole Augustus in the East, whereas his brother-in-legislation, Constantine, was supreme in the West. Licinius straight rushed to the east to contend with one other possibility, this time from the Persian Sassanids.
War with Constantine I
In 314, a civil warfare erupted between Licinius and Constantine, wherein Constantine extinct the pretext that Licinius was harbouring Senecio, whom Constantine accused of plotting to overthrow him. Constantine prevailed at the Strive in opposition to of Cibalae in Pannonia (October 8, 314). Even though the location was temporarily settled, with both men sharing the consulship in 315, it was but a lull in the storm. The next Twelve months a original warfare erupted, when Licinius named Valerius Valens co-emperor, handiest for Licinius to undergo a humiliating defeat on the undeniable of Mardia (additionally acknowledged as Campus Ardiensis) in Thrace. The emperors were reconciled after these two battles and Licinius had his co-emperor Valens killed.
Over the following ten years, the 2 imperial colleagues maintained an uneasy truce. Licinius kept himself busy with a campaign in opposition to the Sarmatians in 318, but temperatures rose again in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, throughout the Danube into what was technically Licinius’s territory. When he repeated this with one other invasion, this time by the Goths who were pillaging Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them.
Constantine wasted no time going on the offensive. Licinius’s like a flash of 350 ships was defeated by Constantine’s like a flash in 323. Then in 324, Constantine, tempted by the “evolved age and unpopular vices” of his colleague, again declared warfare in opposition to him and having defeated his navy of 170,000 men at the Strive in opposition to of Adrianople (July 3, 324), succeeded in shutting him up inside the partitions of Byzantium. The defeat of the excellent like a flash of Licinius in the Strive in opposition to of the Hellespont by Crispus, Constantine’s eldest son and Caesar, compelled his withdrawal to Bithynia, where a final stand was made; the Strive in opposition to of Chrysopolis, advance Chalcedon (September 18), resulted in Licinius’ final submission. Whereas Licinius’ co-emperor Sextus Martinianus was killed, Licinius himself was spared ensuing from the pleas of his wife, Constantine’s sister and interned at Thessalonica. The next Twelve months, Constantine had him hanged, accusing him of conspiring to decide out troops amongst the barbarians.
Persona and legacy
After defeating Daia, he had save to loss of life Flavius Severianus, the son of the emperor Severus, apart from Candidianus, the son of Galerius. He additionally ordered the execution of the wife and daughter of the Emperor Diocletian, who had fled from the court docket of Licinius sooner than being realized at Thessalonica.
As fragment of Constantine’s makes an strive to lower Licinius’s reputation, he actively portrayed his brother-in-legislation as a pagan supporter. This was no longer the case; as much as the moment proof tends to imply that he was at least a dedicated supporter of Christians. He co-authored the Edict of Milan which ended the Sizable Persecution, and re-affirmed the rights of Christians in his half of the empire. He additionally added the Christian symbol to his armies, and tried to control the affairs of the Church hierarchy just correct as Constantine and his successors were to attain. His wife was a non secular Christian. It is a long way even a possibility that he transformed. Nonetheless, Eusebius of Caesarea, writing below the rule of thumb of Constantine, costs him with expelling Christians from the Palace and ordering military sacrifice, apart from interfering with the Church’s inner procedures and organization. In step with Eusebius, this turned what perceived to be a dedicated Christian proper into a person that feigned sympathy for the sect but who sooner or later exposed his actual bloodthirsty pagan nature, handiest to be stopped by the virtuous Constantine.
Sooner or later, on Licinius’s loss of life, his reminiscence was branded with infamy; his statues were thrown down; and by edict, all his laws and judicial lawsuits throughout his reign were abolished.